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Monitoring physiological parameters is essential for the goal directed management of critical care patients. Highly invasive monitoring methods have been established in clinical practice for many years, but are increasingly the centre of critical discussion. The PiCCO-Technology is the solution.

PiCCO-Technology is the easy, less invasive and cost-efficient tool for determining the main haemodynamic parameters of critically ill patients.

  • Bedside quantification of pulmonary oedema
  • Quantification of cardiac preload
  • Several arterial access points inc. for paediatric patients 
  • Precise, calibrated Cardiac Output – beat-to-beat
  • Volumetric preload parameter instead of filling pressures
  • Afterload, contractility, volume responsiveness

Indications

  • Septic shock
  • Cardiogenic shock
  • Traumatic shock
  • ARDS
  • Severe burn injuries
  • Pancreatitis
  • High risk surgical procedures

PiCCO Catheter and Kits

  • Transpulmonary thermodilution and pulse contour analysis
  • Arterial access via femoral, brachial or axillary artery
  • Suitable for paediatric patients

The best and safest way of using the technology is to use the complete kit.

These consist of:

  • PiCCO-Catheter with Seldinger insertion instruments, guide wire, cannula, dilatator and
  • PiCCO-Monitoring Kit with injectate sensor housing and pressure transducer

Two components of the PiCCO technology

The PiCCO technology is based on two physical principles, namely transpulmonary thermodilution and pulse contour analysis. Both principles allow the calculation of haemodynamic parameters and have been clinically tested and established for more than 20 years.

Arterial pulse contour analysis

The pulse contour analysis provides continuous information while transpulmonary thermodilution provides static measurements. Transpulmonary thermodilution is used to calibrate the continuous pulse contour parameters.

Transpulmonary thermodilution

For the transpulmonary thermodilution measurement, a defined bolus (for example 15mls cold 0.9% normal saline) is injected via a central venous catheter. The cold bolus passes through the right heart, the lungs and the left heart and is detected by the PiCCO catheter, commonly placed in the femoral artery. This procedure should be repeated around three times in under 10 minutes to ensure an accurate average is used to calibrate the device and to calculate the thermodilution parameters. These thermodilution parameters (i.e. they are updated only when the thermodilution procedure is performed) should be checked whenever there is a significant change in the patient’s condition or therapy. It is recommended to calibrate the system at least 2 to 3 times per day depending on the patients condition.

General

Assaad S, Popescu W, Perrino A
Fluid management in thoracic surgery
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2013; 26(1): 31-9

Sakka SG, Reuter DA, Perel A
The transpulmonary thermodilution technique
J Clin Monit Comput 2012; 26: 347-53

Oren-Grinberg A.
The PiCCO Monitor
International Anesthesiology Clinics 2010; 48(1): 57 – 85

Reuter D, Huang C, Edrich T, Shernan SK, Eltzschig HK
Cardiac output monitoring using indicator-dilution techniques: basics, limits, and perspectives
Anesth Analg, 2010; 110(3): 799-811

King D & Price AM.
Measuring cardiac output using the PiCCO system
British Journal of Cardiac Nursing 2008; 3 (11): 512-519

Malbrain M, De Potter P, Deeren D.
Cost Effectiveness of minimally invasive hemodynamic monitoring
In: Vincent JL (Ed.), Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2005: 603-18

Genahr A, McLuckie A
Transpulmonary thermodilution in the critically ill
Brit J Int Care 2004: 6-10

Cardiac Output

Reuter D, Goetz AE
[Messung des Herzzeitvolumens] (Article in German)
Anaesthesist 2005; 54:1135-53

Preload

Eichhorn V, Goepfert MS, Eulenburg C, Malbrain ML, Reuter DA
Comparison of values in critically ill patients for global end-diastolic volume and extravascular lung water measured by transcardiopulmonary thermodilution: A metaanalysis of the literature
Med Intensiva 2012; 36(7): 467-74

Della Rocca G, Costa MG, Pietropaoli P.
How to measure and interpret volumetric measures of preload
Curr Opin Crit Care 2007; 13(3): 297-302

Lung Water

Zhang Z, Lu B, Ni H.
Prognostic value of extravascular lung water index in critically ill patients: A systematic review of the literature
J Crit Care 2012; 27(4): 420 e.1-9

Maharaj R.
Extravascular lung water and acute lung injury
Cardiol Res Pract 2011; 2012: 407035

Fernandez-Mondejar E, Guerrero-López F, Colmenero M.
How important is the measurement of extravascular lung water?
Curr Opin Crit Care 2007; 13: 79-83

Michard F.
Bedside assessment of extravascular lung water by dilution methods: temptations and pitfalls
Crit Care Med 2007; 35(4):1186-92

Isakow W, Schuster DP.
Extravascular lung water measurements and hemodynamic monitoring in the critically ill: bedside alternatives to the pulmonary artery catheter
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2006; 291: 1118-33

Pediatric

Lemson J, Nusmeier A, van der Hoeven JG
Advanced Hemodynamic Monitoring in Critically Ill Children
Pediatrics 2011; 128(3): 560-71

Transpulmonary Thermodilution Review Articles

  • Sakka SG, Reuter DA, Perel A
    The transpulmonary thermodilution technique
    J Clin Monit Comput 2012; 26: 347-53
  • Oren-Grinberg A
    The PiCCO Monitor
    Int Anesthesiol Clin 2010; 48(1): 57-85

Burns

  • Sanchez-Sanchez M, Garcia-de-Lorenzo A, Herrero E, Lopez T, Galvan B, Asensio MJ, Cachafeiro L, Casado C
    A protocol for resuscitation of severe burn patients guided by transpulmonary thermodilution and lactate levels: A 3-year prospective cohort study
    Crit Care 2013; 17(4): R176
  • Csontos C, Foldi V, Fischer T, Bogar L.
    Arterial thermodilution in burn patients suggests a more rapid fluid administration during early resuscitation.
    Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2008; 52(6): 742-9

Cardiogenic Shock

  • Ritter S, Rudiger A, Maggiorini M
    Transpulmonary thermodilution derived cardiac function index identifies cardiac dysfunction in acute heart failure and septic patients: an observational study
    Crit Care 2009; 13(4): R133
  • Friesecke S, Heinrich A, Abel P, Felix SB.
    Comparison of pulmonary artery and aortic transpulmonary thermodilution for monitoring of cardiac output in patients with severe heart failure: validation of a novel method.
    Crit Care Med 2009; 37(1): 119-23

Paediatrics

  • Kraft R, Herndon DN, Branski LK, Finnerty CC, Leonard KR, Jeschke MG
    Optimized fluid management improves outcomes of pediatric burn patients
    J Surg Res 2013; 181(1): 121-8
  • Lemson J, Backx AP, van Oort AM, Bouw TP, van der Hoeven JG. 
    Extravascular lung water measurement using transpulmonary thermodilution in children Pediatr Crit Care Med 2009; 10(2): 227-33

Septic Shock

  • Chung FT, Lin HC, Kuo CH, Yu CT, Chou CL, Lee KY, Kuo HP, Lin SM.
    Extravascular lung water correlates multiorgan dysfunction syndrome and mortality in sepsis.
    PLoS One 2010; 5(12): e15265.
  • Martin GS, Eaton S, Mealer M, Moss M.
    Extravascular lung water in patients with severe sepsis: a prospective cohort study
    Crit Care 2005; 9(2):R74-82

Liver Surgery

  • Costa MG, Girardi L, Pompei L, Chiarandini P, De Flaviis A, Lugano M, Mattelig S, Tripi G, Vetrugno L, Baccarani U, Scudeller L, Della Rocca G
    Perioperative intra- and extravascular volume in liver transplant recipients
    Transplant Proc 2011; 43(4): 1098-102

ALI/ARDS 

  • Jozwiak M, Silva S, Persichini R, Anguel N, Osman D, Richard C, Teboul JL, Monnet X
    Extravascular lung water is an independent prognostic factor in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome
    Crit Care Med 2013; 41(2): 472-80
  • Letourneau JL, Pinney J, Phillips C
    Extravascular lung water predicts progression to acute lung injury in patients with increased risk.
    Crit Care Med 2012; 40(3): 947-54

ALI/ARDS continouos 

  • Monnet X, Anguel N, Osman D, Hamzaoui , Richard C, Teboul JL
    Assessing pulmonary permeability by transpulmonary thermodilution allows differentiation of hydrostatic pulmonary edema from ALI / ARDS
    Intensive Care Medicine 2007; 33 (3): 448-53

Heart Surgery

  • Goepfert M, Richter HP, Eulenburg CZ, Gruetzmacher J, Rafflenbeul E, Roeher K, Sandersleben AV, Diedrichs S, Reichenspurner H, Goetz AE, Reuter DA
    Individually Optimized Hemodynamic Therapy Reduces Complications and Length of Stay in the Intensive Care Unit: A Prospective, Randomized Controlled Trial
    Anesthesiology 2013; 119(4); 824-36

Neuro Surgery

  • Mutoh T, Kazumata K, Ishikawa T, Terasaka S.
    Performance of Bedside Transpulmonary Thermodilution Monitoring for Goal-Directed Hemodynamic Management After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.
    Stroke 2009; 40(7); 2368-74

Flow (Cardiac Output) 

Petzoldt M, Riedel C, Braeunig J, Haas S, Goepfert MS, Treede H, Baldus S, Goetz AE, Reuter DA 
Stroke volume determination using transcardiopulmonary thermodilution and arterial pulse contour analysis in severe aortic valve disease 
Intensive Care Med 2013; 39(4): 601-11 

Gruenewald M, Meybohm P, Renner J, Broch O, Caliebe A, Weiler N, Steinfath M, Scholz J, Bein B 
Effect of norepinephrine dosage and calibration frequency on accuracy of pulse contour-derived cardiac output 
Crit Care 2011; 15(1): R22. 

Friesecke S, Heinrich A, Abel P, Felix SB 
Comparison of pulmonary artery and aortic transpulmonary thermodilution for monitoring of cardiac output in patients with severe heart failure: validation of a novel method 
Crit Care Med 2009; 37(1): 119-23 

Lemson J, de Boode WP, Hopman JC, Singh SK, van der Hoeven JG 
Validation of transpulmonary thermodilution cardiac output measurement in a pediatric animal model 
Pediatr Crit Care Med 2008; 9(3): 313-9 

Felbinger TW, Reuter DA, Eltzschig HK, Bayerlein J, Goetz AE 
Cardiac index measurements during rapid preload changes: a comparison of pulmonary artery thermodilution with arterial pulse contour analysis 
J Clin Anesth 2005; 17(4):241-8 

Marx G, Schuerholz T, Sumpelmann R, Simon T, Leuwer M 
Comparison of cardiac output measurements by arterial trans-cardiopulmonary and pulmonary arterial thermodilution with direct Fick in septic shock 
Eur J Anaesthesiol 2005; 22(2):129-34 

Bein B, Worthmann F, Tonner PH, Paris A, Steinfath M, Hedderich J, Scholz J 
Comparison of esophageal Doppler, pulse contour analysis, and real-time pulmonary artery thermodilution for the continuous measurement of cardiac output
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2004; 18(2):185-9 

Godje O, Hoke K, Goetz AE, Felbinger TW, Reuter DA, Reichart B, Friedl R, Hannekum A, Pfeiffer UJ 
Reliability of a new algorithm for continuous cardiac output determination by pulse-contour analysis during hemodynamic instability 
Crit Care Med 2002; 30(1):52-8 Jul 2014 

Preload (Global Enddiastolic Volume and Intrathoracic Blood Volume) 

Renner J, Gruenewald M, Brand P, Steinfath M, Scholz J, Lutter G, Bein B 
Global End-Diastolic Volume as a Variable of Fluid Responsiveness During Acute Changing Loading Conditions 
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2007; 21(5): 650-4 

Kozieras, J, Thuemer O, Sakka SG 
Influence of an acute increase in systemic vascular resistance on transpulmonary thermodilution-derived parameters in critically ill patients 
Intensive Care Med 2007; 33:1619-23 

Michard F, Alaya S, Zarka V, Bahloul M, Richard C, Teboul JL 
Global end-diastolic volume as an indicator of cardiac preload in patients with septic shock 
Chest 2003; 124(5):1900-8 

Contractility (Global Ejection Fraction, Cardiac Function Index and Left Ventricular Contractility) 

Aguilar G, Belda FJ, Ferrando C, Jover JL 
Assessing the left ventricular systolic function at the bedside: the role of transpulmonary thermodilution-derived indices 
Anesthesiol Res Pract 2011: 927421 

Meybohm P, Gruenewald M, Renner J, Maracke M, Rossee S, Hocker J, Hagelsteins S, Zacharowski K, Bein B 
Assessment of left ventricular systolic function during acute myocardial ischemia: A comparison of transpulmonary thermodilution and transesophageal echocardiography 
Minerva Anestesiol 2011; 77(2): 132-41 

Trepte CJ, Eichhorn V, Haas SA, Richter HP, Goepfert MS, Kubitz JC, Goetz AE, Reuter DA 
Thermodilution-derived indices for assessment of left and right ventricular cardiac function in normal and impaired cardiac function 
Crit Care Med 2011; 39(9): 2106-12 

Jabot J, Monnet X, Lamia B, Chemla D, Christian R, Teboul JL 
Cardiac function index provided by transpulmonary thermodilution behaves as an indicator of left ventricular systolic function 
Crit Care Med 2009; 37(11): 2913-8 

de Hert S, Robert D, Cromheecke S, Michard F, Nijs J, Rodrigues IE 
Evaluation of Left Ventricular Function in Anesthetised Patients Using Femoral Artery dP/dtmax 
J Cardio Thor Vasc Anes 2006; 20(3): 325-30 

Combes A, Berneau JB, Lut CE, Trouillet JL  E
stimation of left ventricular systolic function by single transpulmonary thermodilution 
Intensive Care Med 2004; 30(7): 1377-83 Jul 2014 PiCCO Technology Literature Validation Page 3 

Volume Responsiveness (Stroke Volume Variation and Pulse Pressure Variation) 

Kubitz JC, Annecke T, Forkl S, Kemming GI, Kronas N, Goetz AE, Reuter DA 
Validation of pulse contour derived stroke volume variation during modifications of cardiac afterload 
Br J Anaesth 2007; 98(5): 591-7 

Hofer CK, Muller SM, Furrer L, Klaghofer R, Genoni M, Zollinger A 
Stroke volume and pulse pressure variation for prediction of fluid responsiveness in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting 
Chest 2005; 128(2):848-54 

Reuter DA, Kirchner A, Felbinger TW, Weis FC, Kilger E, Lamm P, Goetz AE 
Usefulness of left ventricular stroke volume variation to assess fluid responsiveness in patients with reduced cardiac function 
Crit Care Med 2003; 31(5):1399-404 

Pulmonary Edema (Extravascular Lung Water) 

Venkateswaran RV, Dronavalli V, Patchell V, Wilson I, Mascaro J, Thompson R, Coote J, Bonser RS 
Measurement of extravascular lung water following human brain death; implications for lung donor assessment and transplantation 
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2013; 43(6): 1227-32 

Tagami T, Kushimoto S, Yamamoto Y, Atsumi T, Tosa R, Matsuda K, Oyama R, Kawaguchi T, Masuno T, Hirama H, Yokota H 
Validation of extravascular lung water measurement by single transpulmonary thermodilution: human autopsy study 
Crit Care 2010; 14(5): R162 

Lemson J, Backx AP, van Oort AM, Bouw TP, van der Hoeven JG 
Extravascular lung water measurement using transpulmonary thermodilution in children 
Pediatr Crit Care Med 2009; 10(2): 227-33 

Monnet X, Anguel N, Osman D, Hamzaoui, Richard C, Teboul JL  A
ssessing pulmonary permeability by transpulmonary thermodilution allows differentiation of hydrostatic pulmonary edema from ALI / ARDS 
Intensive Care Medicine 2007; 33(3):448-53 

Kirov MY, Kuzkov VV, Kuklin VN, Waerhaug K, Bjertnaes LJ 
Extravascular lung water assessed by transpulmonary single thermodilution and postmortem gravimetry in sheep 
Crit Care 2004; 8(6):R451-8 

Katzenelson R, Perel A, Berkenstadt H, Preisman S, Kogan S, Sternik L, Segal E 
Accuracy of transpulmonary thermodilution versus gravimetric measurement of extravascular lung water 
Crit Care Med 2004; 32(7):1550-4 

Sakka SG, Ruhl CC, Pfeiffer UJ, Beale R, McLuckie A, Reinhart K, Meier-Hellmann A 
Assessment of cardiac preload and extravascular lung water by single transpulmonary thermodilution 
Intensive Care Medicine 2000; 26 (2):180-7 

Outcome papers, guidelines and SOP's

Outcome papers 

Mutoh T, Kazumata K, Terasaka S, Taki Y, Suzuki A, Ishikawa T.
Early Intensive Versus Minimally Invasive Approach to Postoperative Hemodynamic Management After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage 
Stroke 2014; 45(5): 1280-4 

Hu W, Lin CW, Liu BW, Hu WH, Zhu Y 
Extravascular lung water and pulmonary arterial wedge pressure for fluid management in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome 
Multidiscip Respir Med 2014; 9(1): 3 

Goepfert M, Richter HP, Eulenburg CZ, Gruetzmacher J, Rafflenbeul E, Roeher K, Sandersleben AV, Diedrichs S, Reichenspurner H, Goetz AE, Reuter DA 
Individually Optimized Hemodynamic Therapy Reduces Complications and Length of Stay in the Intensive Care Unit: A Prospective, Randomized Controlled Trial
Anesthesiology 2013; 119(4); 824-36 

Kraft R, Herndon DN, Branski LK, Finnerty CC, Leonard KR, Jeschke MG 
Optimized fluid management improves outcomes of pediatric burn patients 
J Surg Res 2013; 181(1): 121-8 

Adler C, Reuter H, Seck C, Hellmich M, Zobel C 
Fluid therapy and acute kidney injury in cardiogenic shock after cardiac arrest 
Resuscitation 2013; 84(2): 194-9 

Lenkin AI, Kirov MY, Kuzkov VV, Paromov KV, Smetkin AA, Lie M, Bjertnaes LJ 
Comparison of goal-directed hemodynamic optimization using pulmonary artery catheter and transpulmonary thermodilution in combined valve repair: a randomized clinical trial 
Crit Care Res Pract 2012: 821218. 

Pino-Sanchez F, Lara-Rosales R, Guerrero-Lopez F, Chamorro-Marin V, Navarrete-Navarro P, Carazo-de la Fuente E, Fernandez-Mondejar E. 
Influence of extravascular lung water determination in fluid and vasoactive therapy 
J Trauma 2009; 67(6): 1220-4 

Mutoh T, Kazumata K, Ishikawa T, Terasaka S 
Performance of Bedside Transpulmonary Thermodilution Monitoring for Goal-Directed Hemodynamic Management After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage 
Stroke 2009; 40(7): 2368 - 74 

Smetkin AA, Kirov M, Kuzkov VV, Lenkin AI, Eremeev AV, Slastilin VY, Borodin VV, Bjertnaes LJ. 
Single transpulmonary thermodilution and continuous monitoring of central venous oxygen saturation during off-pump coronary surgery. 
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2009; 53: 505-14 Jul 2014 PiCCO Technology Literature Outcome and SOP Page 2 

Csontos C, Foldi V, Fischer T, Bogar L. 
Arterial thermodilution in burn patients suggests a more rapid fluid administration during early resuscitation. 
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2008; 52(6): 742-9 

Goepfert M, Reuter D, Akyol D, Lamm P, Kilger E, Goetz A. 
Goal directed fluid management reduces vasopressor and catecholamine use in cardiac surgery patients 
Intensive Care Medicine 2007; 33: 96-103 

Mitchell JP, Schuller D, Calandrino FS, Schuster DP. 
Improved outcome based on fluid management in critically ill patients requiring pulmonary artery catheterization 
Am Rev Respir Dis 1992; 145(5): 990-8 

Guidelines and Standard Operating Procedures 

Reinhart K, Brunkhorst FM, Bone HG, Bardutzky J, Dempfle CE, Forst H, Gastmeier P, Gerlach H et al. 
Prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up care of sepsis. First revision of the S2k Guidelines of the German Sepsis Society (DSG) and the German Interdisciplinary Association for Intensive and Emergency Care Medicine (DIVI)] 
Anaesthesist 2010; 59(4): 347-70 

Carl M, Alms A, Braun J, Dongas A, Erb J, Goetz A, Goepfert M, Gogarten W, Grosse J, Heller AR et al. 
S3 guidelines for intensive care in cardiac surgery patients: hemodynamic monitoring and cardiocirculary system 
Ger Med Sci 2010; 8: Doc12 (article in German) 

Brierley J, Choong K, Cornell T, Decaen A,Deymann A, Doctor A, Davis A, Duff J, Dugas MA et al. 
2007 American College of Critical Care Medicine clinical practice parameters for hemodynamic support of pediatric and neonatal septic shock 
Crit Care Med 2009; 37(2): 666 – 688 

Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Carlet JM, Bion J, Parker MM, Jaeschke R, Reinhart K, Angus DC, Brun-Buisson C et al. 
Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008 
Intensive Care Med 2008; 34(1): 17-60 

Kortgen A, Niederprün P, Bauer M. 
Implementation of an evidence-based „standard operating procedure“ and outcome in septic shock 
Crit Care Med 2006; 34(4): 939-9 

Clinical Use ALI / ARDS

Hu W, Lin CW, Liu BW, Hu WH, Zhu Y
Extravascular lung water and pulmonary arterial wedge pressure for fluid management in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome
Multidiscip Respir Med 2014; 9(1): 3

Brown LM, Calfee CS, Howard JP, Craig TR, Matthay MA, McAuley DF
Comparison of thermodilution measured extravascular lung water with chest radiographic assessment of pulmonary oedema in patients with acute lung injury
Ann Intensive Care 2013; 3(1): 25

Kushimoto S, Endo T, Yamanouchi S, Sakamoto T, Ishikura H, Kitazawa Y et al.
Relationship between extravascular lung water and severity categories of acute respiratory distress syndrome by the Berlin definition
Crit Care 2013; 17(4): R132

Tagami T, Sawabe M, Kushimoto S, Marik P, Mieno MN, Kawaguchi T, Kusakabe T, Tosa R, Yokota H, Fukuda M
Quantitative Diagnosis of Diffuse Alveolar Damage Using Extravascular Lung Water
Crit Care Med 2013; 41(9); 2144-50

Jozwiak M, Silva S, Persichini R, Anguel N, Osman D, Richard C, Teboul JL, Monnet X
Extravascular lung water is an independent prognostic factor in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome
Crit Care Med 2013; 41(2): 472-80

Kushimoto S, Taira T, Taira, Y, Kitazawa Y, Okuchi K, Sakamoto T, Ishikura H, Endo T, Yamanouchi S, Tagami T, Yamaguchi J et al,.
The clinical usefulness of extravascular lung water and pulmonary vascular permeability index to diagnose and characterize pulmonary edema: a prospective multicenter study on the quantitative differential diagnostic definition for acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome
Crit Care 2012; 16(6): R232

Letourneau JL, Pinney J, Phillips C
Extravascular lung water predicts progression to acute lung injury in patients with increased risk
Crit Care Med 2012; 40(3): 947-54

Craig TR, Duffy MJ, Shyamsundar M, McDowell C, McLaughlin B, Elborn JS, McAuley D
Extravascular lung water indexed to predicted body weight is a novel predictor of intensive care unit mortality in patients with acute lung injury
Crit Care Med 2010; 38(1): 114-20

Berkowitz DM, Danai PA, Eaton S, Moss M, Martin G
Accurate characterization of extravascular lung water in acute respiratory distress syndrome
Crit Care Med 2008; 36(6): 1803-9

Phillips C, Chesnutt M, Smith M
Extravascular lung water in sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome: indexing with predicted body weight improves correlation with severity of illness and survival
Crit Care Med, 2008: 36(1); 69-73

Monnet X, Anguel N, Osman D, Hamzaoui, Richard C, Teboul JL
Assessing pulmonary permeability by transpulmonary thermodilution allows differentiation of hydrostatic pulmonary edema from ALI / ARDS
Intensive Care Medicine 2007; 33(3): 448-53

Perkins GD, McAuley DF, Thickett DR, Gao F
The beta-agonist lung injury trial (BALTI): a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006; 173(3): 281-7

Burns

Sanchez-Sanchez M, Garcia-de-Lorenzo A, Herrero E, Lopez T, Galvan B, Asensio MJ, Cachafeiro L, Casado C
A protocol for resuscitation of severe burn patients guided by transpulmonary thermodilution and lactate levels: A 3-year prospective cohort study
Crit Care 2013; 17(4): R176

Branski LK, Herndon DN, Byrd JF, Kinsky MP, Lee JO, Fagan SP, Jeschke MG
Transpulmonary thermodilution for hemodynamic measurements in severely burned children
Crit Care 2011; 15(2): R118.

Bognar Z, Foldi V, Rezman B, Bogar L, Csontos C
Extravascular lung water index as a sign of developing sepsis in burns
Burns 2010; 8: 1263-70

Csontos C, Foldi V, Fischer T, Bogar L
Arterial thermodilution in burn patients suggests a more rapid fluid administration during early resuscitation
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2008; 52(6): 742-9

Holm C, Mayr M, Horbrand F, Tegeler J, Henckel von Donnersmarck G, Muhlbauer W, Pfeiffer UJ
Reproducibility of transpulmonary thermodilution measurements in patients with burn shock and hypothermia
J Burn Care Rehabil 2005; 26(3):260-5

Holm C, Melcer B, Horbrand F, Henckel von Donnersmarck G, Muhlbauer W.
Arterial thermodilution: an alternative to pulmonary artery catheter for cardiac output assessment in burn patients
Burns 2001; 27(2):161-6

Holm C, Melcer B, Horbrand F, Worl H, von Donnersmarck GH, Muhlbauer W.
Intrathoracic blood volume as an end point in resuscitation of the severely burned: an observational study of 24 patients
J Trauma 2000; 48(4):728-34

Cardiac Surgery

Goepfert M, Richter HP, Eulenburg CZ, Gruetzmacher J, Rafflenbeul E, Roeher K, Sandersleben AV, Diedrichs S, Reichenspurner H, Goetz AE, Reuter DA
Individually Optimized Hemodynamic Therapy Reduces Complications and Length of Stay in the Intensive Care Unit: A Prospective, Randomized Controlled Trial
Anesthesiology 2013; 119(4); 824-36

Staier K, Wilhelm M, Wiesenack C, Thoma M, Keyl C
Pulmonary artery vs. transpulmonary thermodilution for the assessment of cardiac output in mitral regurgitation: a prospective method comparison study
Eur J Anaesthesiol 2012; 29(9): 431-7

Smetkin AA, Kirov M, Kuzkov VV, Lenkin AI, Eremeev AV, Slastilin VY, Borodin VV, Bjertnaes LJ
Single transpulmonary thermodilution and continuous monitoring of central venous oxygen saturation during off-pump coronary surgery.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2009; 53: 505-14

Goepfert M, Reuter D, Akyol D, Lamm P, Kilger E, Goetz A
Goal directed fluid management reduces vasopressor and catecholamine use in cardiac surgery patients
Intensive Care Medicine 2007;33: 96-103

Wouters PF, Quaghebeur B, Sergeant P, Van Hemelrijck J, Vandermeersch E
Cardiac output monitoring using a brachial arterial catheter during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2005; 19: 160-4

Bettex DA, Hinselmann V, Hellermann JP, Jenni R, Schmid ER
Transoesophageal echocardiography is more unreliable for cardiac output assessment after cardiac surgery compared with thermodilution
Anesthesia 2004; 59:1184-92

Mielck F, Buhre W, Hanekop G, Tirilomis T, Hilgers R, Sonntag H
Comparison of continuous cardiac output measurements in patients after cardiac surgery
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2003; 17(2):211-6

Buhre W, Weyland A, Kazmaier S, Hanekop GG, Baryalei MM, Sydow M, Sonntag H
Comparison of cardiac output assessed by pulse-contour analysis and thermodilution in patients undergoing minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1999; 13(4):437-40

Godje O, Hoke K, Lamm P, Schmitz C, Thiel C, Weinert M, Reichart B
Continuous, less invasive, hemodynamic monitoring in intensive care after cardiac surgery
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1998; 46(4):242-9

Cardiogenic Shock

Ritter S, Rudiger A, Maggiorini M
Transpulmonary thermodilution derived cardiac function index identifies cardiac dysfunction in acute heart failure and septic patients: an observational study
Crit Care 2009; 13(4): R133

Friesecke S, Heinrich A, Abel P, Felix SB
Comparison of pulmonary artery and aortic transpulmonary thermodilution for monitoring of cardiac output in patients with severe heart failure: validation of a novel method
Crit Care Med 2009; 37(1): 119-23

Janda M, Scheeren TWL, Bajorat J, Westphal B, Vagts DA, Pohl B, Popescu C, Hofmockel R
The impact of Intra-aortic Balloon Pumping on Cardiac Output Determination by Pulmonary Arterial and Transpulmonary Thermodilution in Pigs
J of Cardiovasc and Vasc Anesth 2006; 20 (3):320-4

Hypovolemic Shock

Nirmalan M, Niranjan M, Willard T, Edwards JD, Little RA, Dark PM
Estimation of errors in determining intrathoracic blood volume using thermal dilution in pigs with acute lung injury and haemorrhage
Br J Anaesth 2005; 93(4):546-51

Berkenstadt H, Friedman Z, Preisman S, Keidan I, Livingstone D, Perel A
Pulse pressure and stroke volume variations during severe haemorrhage in ventilated dogs
Br J Anaesth 2005; 94(6): 721-6

Friedman Z, Berkenstadt H, Margalit N, Segal E, Perel
Cardiac output assessed by arterial thermodilution during exsanguination and fluid resuscitation: experimental validation against a reference technique
Eur J Anaesthesiol 2002; 19(5):337-40

Medical ICU

Dres M, Teboul JL, Guerin L, Anguel N, Amilien V, Clair MP, Gruner A, Richard C, Monnet X
Extravascular Lung Water, B-Type Natriuretic Peptide, and Blood Volume Contraction Enable Diagnosis of Weaning-Induced Pulmonary Edema
Crit Care Med 2014; epub

Dres M, Teboul JL, Guerin L, Anguel N, Amilien V, Clair MP, Gruner A, Richard C, Monnet X
Transpulmonary Thermodilution Enables to Detect Small Short-Term Changes in Extravascular Lung Water Induced by a Bronchoalveolar Lavage
Crit Care Med 2014; epub

Trepte CJ, Bachmann KA, Stork JH, Friedheim TJ, Hinsch A, Goepfert MS, Mann O, Izbicki JR, Goetz AE, Reuter DA
The impact of early goal-directed fluid management on survival in an experimental model of severe acute pancreatitis
Intensive Care Med 2013; 39(4): 717-26

Chew MS, Ihrman L, During J, Bergenzaun L, Ersson A, Unden J, Ryden J, Akerman E, Larsson M
Extravascular lung water index improves the diagnostic accuracy of lung injury in patients with shock
Crit Care 2012; 16(1): R1

Saugel B, Ringmaier S, Holzapfel K, Schuster T, Phillip V, Schmid RM, Huber W
Physical examination, central venous pressure, and chest radiography for the prediction of transpulmonary thermodilution-derived hemodynamic parameters in critically ill patients: A prospective trial
J Crit Care 2011; 26(4): 402-10

Huber W, Umgelter A, Reindl W, Franzen M, Schmidt C, von Delius S, Geisler F, Eckel F, Fritsch R, Siveke J, Henschel B, Schmid RM
Volume assessment in patients with necrotizing pancreatitis: A comparison of intrathoracic blood volume index (ITBI), central venous pressure, and hematocrit, and their correlation to cardiac index and extravascular lung water index
Crit Care Med 2008; 36 (8): 2348-54

Chung FT, Lin SM, Lin SY, Lin HC
Impact of extravascular lung water index on outcomes of severe sepsis patients in a medical intensive care unit
Respir Med 2008; 102(7): 956-61

Kortgen A, Niederprün P, Bauer M
Implementation of an evidence-based „standard operating procedure“ and outcome in septic shock
Crit Care Med 2006; 34 (4):939-9

Mitchell JP, Schuller D, Calandrino FS, Schuster DP
Improved outcome based on fluid management in critically ill patients requiring pulmonary artery catheterization
Am Rev Respir Dis 1992; 145(5):990-8

Neurology / Neurosurgery

Mutoh T, Kazumata K, Terasaka S, Taki Y, Suzuki A, Ishikawa T.
Early Intensive Versus Minimally Invasive Approach to Postoperative Hemodynamic Management After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Stroke 2014; 45(5): 1280-4

Tagami T, Kuwamoto K, Watanabe A, Unemoto K, Yokobori S, Matsumoto G, Yokota H.
Optimal Range of Global End-Diastolic Volume for Fluid Management After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study
Crit Care Med 2014; epub

Yoneda H, Nakamura T, Shirao S, Tanaka N, Ishihara H, Suehiro E, Koizumi H, Isotani E, Suzuki M.
Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study on Volume Management After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Hemodynamic Changes According to Severity of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Cerebral Vasospasm
Stroke 2013; 44(8); 2155-61

Sato Y, Isotani E, Kubota Y, Otomo Y, Ohno K
Circulatory characteristics of normovolemia and normotension therapy after subarachnoid hemorrhage, focusing on pulmonary edema
Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2012; 154(12): 2195-202

Mutoh T, Kazumata K, Kobayashi S, Terasaka S, Ishikawa T
Serial Measurement of Extravascular Lung Water and Blood Volume During the Course of Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Initial Experience With 3 Cases
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2011; 24(3): 203-8

Lazaridis C
Advanced Hemodynamic Monitoring: Principles and Practice in Neurocritical Care
Neurocrit Care 2012; 16(1): 163-9

Verein M, Valiahmedov A, Churliaev Y, Sitnikov P, Redkokasha L, Lukashev K
Dynamics of extravascular pulmonary water and intracranial pressure in patients with ischemic stroke.
Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2010; 14(4): 226-30

Mutoh T, Kazumata K, Ishikawa T, Terasaka S
Performance of Bedside Transpulmonary Thermodilution Monitoring for Goal-Directed Hemodynamic Management After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Stroke 2009; 40(7): 2368 - 74

Mutoh T, Kazumata K, Ajiki M, Ushikoshi S, Terasaka S.
Goal-Directed Fluid Management by Bedside Transpulmonary Hemodynamic Monitoring After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Stroke 2007; 38(12): 3218-24

Segal E, Greenlee JD, Hata SJ, Perel A.
Monitoring intravascular volumes to direct hypertensive, hypervolemic therapy in a patient with vasospasm
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2004; 16(4):296-8

Berkenstadt H, Margalit N, Hadani M, Friedman Z, Segal E, Villa Y, Perel A.
Stroke volume variation as a predictor of fluid responsiveness in patients undergoing brain surgery
Anesth Analg 2001; 92(4):984-9

Pediatrics

Kraft R, Herndon DN, Branski LK, Finnerty CC, Leonard KR, Jeschke MG
Optimized fluid management improves outcomes of pediatric burn patients
J Surg Res 2013; 181(1): 121-8

Nusmeier A, de Boode WP, Hopman JC, Schoof PH, van der Hoeven JG, Lemson J
Cardiac output can be measured with the transpulmonary thermodilution method in a paediatric animal model with a left-to-right shunt
Br J Anaesth 2011; 107: 336-43

Branski LK, Herndon DN, Byrd JF, Kinsky MP, Lee JO, Fagan SP, Jeschke MG
Transpulmonary thermodilution for hemodynamic measurements in severely burned children
Crit Care 2011; 15(2): R118

Lubrano R, Cecchetti C, Tomasello C, Guido G, Di Nardo M, Masciangelo R, Pasotti E, Barbieri MA, Bellelli E, Pirozzi N
Prognostic value of extravascular lung water index in critically ill children with acute respiratory failure
Intensive Care Med. 2011; 37(1): 124-131

Lemson J, Merkus P, van der Hoeven JG
Extravascular lung water index and global end-diastolic volume index should be corrected in children
J Crit Care 2011;26(4): 443 e7- 432 e12

Lopez-Herce J, Bustinza A, Sancho L, Mencia S, Carrillo A, Moral R, Bellon JM.
Cardiac output and blood volume parameters using femoral arterial thermodilution
Pediatr Int 2009; 51(1): 59-65

Lemson J, Backx AP, van Oort AM, Bouw TP, van der Hoeven JG
Extravascular lung water measurement using transpulmonary thermodilution in children
Pediatr Crit Care Med 2009; 10(2): 227-33

Lemson J, de Boode WP, Hopman JC, Singh SK, van der Hoeven JG
Validation of transpulmonary thermodilution cardiac output measurement in a pediatric animal model
Pediatr Crit Care Med 2008; 9(3): 313-9

Fakler U, Pauli Ch, Balling G, Lorenz HP, Eicken A, Hennig M, Hess J.
Cardiac index monitoring by pulse contour analysis and thermodilution after pediatric cardiac surgery
J of Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2007; 133(1):224–8

Lopez-Herce J, Ruperez M, Sanchez C, Garcia C, Garcia E
Hemodynamic response to acute hypovolaemia, rapid blood volume expansion and adrenaline administration in an infant animal model
Resuscitation 2006; 68: 259-65

Egan J, Festa M, Cole A, Nunn GR, Gillis J, Winlaw DS
Clinical assessment of cardiac performance in infants and children following cardiac surgery
Intensive Care Med 2005; 31(4):568-73

Torgay A, Pirat A, Akpek E, Zeyneloglu P, Arslan G, Haberal M
Pulse contour cardiac output system use in pediatric orthotopic liver transplantation: preliminary report of nine patients
Transplant Proc 2005; 37(7):3168-70

Cecchetti C, Stoppa F, Vanacore N, Barbieri MA, Raucci U, Pasotti E, Tomasello C, Marano M, Pirozzi N
Monitoring of intrathoracic volemia and cardiac output in critically ill children
Minerva Anestesiol 2003; 69:907-18

Pauli C, Fakler U, Genz T, Hennig M, Lorenz HP, Hess J
Cardiac output determination in children: equivalence of the transpulmonary thermodilution method to the direct Fick principle
Intensive Care Med 2002; 28(7):947-52

Schiffmann H, Erdlenbruch B, Singer D, Singer S, Herting E, Hoeft A, Buhre W
Assessment of cardiac output, intravascular volume status, and extravascular lung water by transpulmonary indicator dilution in critically ill neonates and infants
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2002; 16(5):592-7

Septic Shock

Chung FT, Lin HC, Kuo CH, Yu CT, Chou CL, Lee KY, Kuo HP, Lin SM
Extravascular lung water correlates multiorgan dysfunction syndrome and mortality in sepsis
PLoS One 2010; 5(12): e15265

Ritter S, Rudiger A, Maggiorini M
Transpulmonary thermodilution derived cardiac function index identifies cardiac dysfunction in acute heart failure and septic patients: an observational study
Crit Care 2009; 13(4): R133

Osman D, Ridel C, Ray P, Monnet X, Anguel N, Richard C, Teboul JL
Cardiac filling pressures are not appropriate to predict hemodynamic response to volume challenge
Crit Care Med 2007; 35(1):64-9

Kortgen A, Niederprün P, Bauer M
Implementation of an evidence-based „standard operating procedure“ and outcome in septic shock
Crit Care Med 2006; 34 (4):939-9

Martin GS, Eaton S, Mealer M, Moss M
Extravascular lung water in patients with severe sepsis: a prospective cohort study
Crit Care 2005; 9(2):R74-82

Michard F, Alaya S, Zarka V, Bahloul M, Richard C,Teboul JL
Global end-diastolic volume as an indicator of cardiac preload in patients with septic shock
Chest 2003; 124(5):1900-8

Surgical Intensive Care

Oshima K, Kunimoto F, Hinohara H, Hayashi Y, Kanemaru Y, Takeyoshi I, Kuwano H
Evaluation of respiratory status in patients after thoracic esophagectomy using PiCCO system
Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2008; 14(5): 283-8

Sato Y, Motoyama S, Maruyama M, Hayashi K, Nakae H, Tajimi K, Ogawa J.
Extravascular Lung Water Measured Using Single Transpulmonary Thermodilution Reflects Perioperative Pulmonary Edema Induced by Esophagectomy
Eur Surg Res 2006; 39(1): 7-13

Groeneveld AB, Verheij J, van den Berg FG, Wisselink W, Rauwerda JA
Increased pulmonary capillary permeability and extravascular lung water after major vascular surgery: effect on radiography and ventilatory variables
Eur J Anaesthesiol 2006; 23(1):36-41

Deja M, Hildebrandt B, Ahlers O, Riess H, Wust P, Gerlach H, Kerner T
Goal-directed therapy of cardiac preload in induced whole-body hyperthermia
Chest 2005; 128(2):580-6

Michard F, Schachtrupp A, Toens C
Factors influencing the estimation of extravascular lung water by transpulmonary thermodilution in critically ill patients
Crit Care Med 2005; 33(6):1243-7

Transplantation

Reydellet L, Blasco V, Mercier MF, Antonini F, Nafati C, Harti-Souab K, Leone M, Albanese J.
Impact of a goal-directed therapy protocol on postoperative fluid balance in patients undergoing liver transplantation: A retrospective study
Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 2014; epub

Minambres E, Coll E, Duerto J, Suberviola B, Mons R, Cifrian JM, Ballesteros MA
Effect of an intensive lung donor-management protocol on lung transplantation outcomes
J Heart Lung Transplant 2014; 33(2): 178-84

Venkateswaran RV, Dronavalli V, Patchell V, Wilson I, Mascaro J, Thompson R, Coote J, Bonser RS
Measurement of extravascular lung water following human brain death; implications for lung donor assessment and transplantation
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2013; 43(6): 1227-32

Costa MG, Girardi L, Pompei L, Chiarandini P, De Flaviis A, Lugano M, Mattelig S, Tripi G, Vetrugno L, Baccarani U, Scudeller L, Della Rocca G
Perioperative intra- and extravascular volume in liver transplant recipients
Transplant Proc 2011; 43(4): 1098-102

Venkateswaran R, Patchell V, Wilson I, Mascaro J, Thompson R, Quinn D, Stockley R, Coote J, Bonser R
Early donor management increases the retrieval rate of lungs for transplantation
Ann Thorac Surg 2008; 85: 278-86

Della Rocca G, Costa GM, Coccia C, Pompei L, Di Marco P, Pietropaoli P
Preload index: pulmonary artery occlusion pressure versus intrathoracic blood volume monitoring during lung transplantation
Anesth Analg 2002; 95(4):835-43

Della Rocca G, Costa MG, Coccia C, Pompei L, Pietropaoli P
Preload and haemodynamic assessment during liver transplantation: a comparison between the pulmonary artery catheter and transpulmonary indicator dilution techniques
Eur J Anaesthesiol 2002; 19(12):868-75

Della Rocca G, Costa MG, Pompei L, Coccia C, Pietropaoli P.
Continuous and intermittent cardiac output measurement: pulmonary artery catheter versus aortic transpulmonary technique
Br J Anaesth 2002; 88(3):350-6

Goedje O, Seebauer T, Peyerl M, Pfeiffer UJ, Reichart B.
Hemodynamic monitoring by double-indicator dilution technique in patients after orthotopic heart transplantation
Chest 2000; 118(3):775-81

Lung Resection

Naidu BV, Dronavalli VD, Rajesh PB.
Measuring lung water following major lung resection
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2009; 8(5): 503-6

Kuzkov VV, Suborov EV, Kirov MY, Kuklin VN, Sobhkhez M, Johnsen S, Waerhaug K, Bjertnaes LJ
Extravascular lung water after pneumonectomy and one-lung ventilation in sheep
Crit Care Med 2007; 35 (6):1550-9

Roch A, Michelet P, D'Journo B, Brousse D, Blayac D, Lambert D, Auffray JP
Accuracy and limits of transpulmonary dilution methods in estimating extravascular lung water after pneumonectomy
Chest 2005; 128(2):927-33

Trauma

Pino-Sanchez F, Lara-Rosales R, Guerrero-Lopez F, Chamorro-Marin V, Navarrete-Navarro P, Carazo-de la Fuente E, Fernandez-Mondejar E
Influence of extravascular lung water determination in fluid and vasoactive therapy
J Trauma 2009; 67(6): 1220-4

Berkenstadt H, Friedman Z, Preisman S, Keidan I, Livingstone D, Perel A
Pulse pressure and stroke volume variations during severe haemorrhage in ventilated dogs
Br J Anaesth 2005; 94 (6): 721-6

Friedman Z, Berkenstadt H, Margalit N, Segal E, Perel A
Cardiac output assessed by arterial thermodilution during exsanguination and fluid resuscitation: experimental validation against a reference technique
Eur J Anaesthesiol 2002; 19(5):337-40

PiCCO parameters in various clinical situations

Adler C, Reuter H, Seck C, Hellmich M, Zobel C
Fluid therapy and acute kidney injury in cardiogenic shock after cardiac arrest
Resuscitation 2013; 84(2): 194-9

Saugel B, Phillip V, Ernesti C, Messer M, Meidert AS, Schmid RM, Huber W
Impact of large-volume thoracentesis on transpulmonary thermodilution-derived extravascular lung water in medical intensive care unit patients
J Crit Care 2013; 28(2): 196-201

Dufour N, Delville M, Teboul JL, Camous L, Favier du Noyer A, Richard C, Monnet X
Transpulmonary thermodilution measurements are not affected by continuous veno-venous hemofiltration at high blood pump flow
Intensive Care Med 2012; 38(7): 1162-8

Tagami T, Kushimoto S, Tosa R, Omura M, Hagiwara J, Hirama H, Yokota H
The precision of PiCCO((R)) measurements in hypothermic post-cardiac arrest patients
Anaesthesia 2012; 67(3): 236-243

Heise D, Faulstich M, Morer O, Brauer , Quintel M
Influence of continuous renal replacement therapy on cardiac output measurement using thermodilution techniques
Minerva Anestesiol 2012; 78(3): 315-21

Monnet X, Persichini R, Ktari M, Jozwiak M, Richard C, Teboul JL
Precision of the transpulmonary thermodilution measurements
Crit Care 2011; 15(4): R204.

Saugel B, Umgelter A, Schuster T, Phillip V, Schmid RM, Huber W
Transpulmonary thermodilution using femoral indicator injection: a prospective trial in patients with a femoral and a jugular central venous catheter
Crit Care 2010; 14(3): R95.

Schmidt S, Westhoff TH, Hofmann C, Schaefer JH, Zidek W, Compton F, van der Giet M
Effect of the venous catheter site on transpulmonary thermodilution measurement variables
Crit Care Med 2007; 35(3):783-6

Compton F, Hoffmann C, Zidek W, Schmidt S, Schaefer JH
Volumetric hemodynamic parameters to guide fluid removal on hemodialysis in the intensive care unit
Hemodial Int 2007; 11(2):231-7

Sakka S, Hanusch T, Thuemer , Wegscheider K
The influence of venovenous renal replacement therapy on measurements by the transpulmonary thermodilution technique
Anesth Analg 2007; 105(4):1079–82

Kuhn C, Kuhn A, Rykow K, Osten B
Extravascular lung water index: A new method to determine dry weight in chronic hemodialysis patients
Hemodial Int 2006; 10(1): 68-72

Janda M, Scheeren TWL, Bajorat J, Westphal B, Vagts DA, Pohl B, Popescu C, Hofmockel R
The impact of Intra-aortic Balloon Pumping on Cardiac Output Determination by Pulmonary Arterial and Transpulmonary Thermodilution in Pigs
J of Cardiovasc and Vasc Anesth 2006; 20 (3):320-4

Michelet P, Roch A, Gainnier M, Sainty JM, Auffray JP, Papazian L
Influence of support on intra-abdominal pressure, hepatic kinetics of indocyanine green and extravascular lung water during prone positioning in patients with ARDS: a randomized crossover study
Crit Care 2005; 9(3):R251-7

Wiesenack C, Prasser C, Liebold A, Schmid FX
Assessment of left ventricular cardiac output by arterial thermodilution technique via a left atrial catheter in a patient on a right ventricular assist device
Perfusion 2004; 19(1):73-5

Luecke T, Roth H, Herrmann P, Joachim A, Weisser G, Pelosi P, Quintel M
PEEP decreases atelectasis and extravascular lung water but not lung tissue volume in surfactant-washout lung injury
Intensive Care Med 2003; 29(11):2026-33

Reuter DA, Felbinger TW, Schmidt C, Moerstedt K, Kilger E, Lamm P, Goetz AE
Trendelenburg positioning after cardiac surgery: effects on intrathoracic blood volume index and cardiac performance
Eur J Anaesthesiol 2003; 20(1):17-20

Hofer CK, Zalunardo MP, Klaghofer R, Spahr T, Pasch T, Zollinger A
Changes in intrathoracic blood volume associated with pneumoperitoneum and positioning
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2002; 46(3):303-8

Kampen J, Liess K, Casadio C, Tonner PH, Scholz J
Thermal lesions caused by a PiCCO catheter left in place in the MRT
Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin 2002; 39(1):113

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